For the upcoming competitive examination TNPSC CCSC IV(GROUP 4&VAO), SO, PC 2020 for these exams we have given 400 questions and answers so practice well to clear the examination. For the exam practice, have given you the science material question bank to clear the examination. In this post, have shared some significant questions that may help you to clear the exams in a prosperous manner.

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Biology is a natural science involved with the study of life and living organisms, including their layout and procedures. The living world comprises plants and animals.  Various parts of the plants are used as food, medicine, wood, and shelter. 4.1 Plant forms and functions: Our body comprises many organs. Similarly, the plant body is also made up of several organs such as roots, stem leaves, and flowers.

Plants are of many forms and many colors, yet they are alike in some manner. That is, they all have stems and leaves above the ground which we can see efficiently, and roots below the ground.

As shown in the image, a flowering plant consists of two major parts. They are,
1. Root system.
2. Shoot method Let us learn about these in details.

1. Root system Root

The belowground part of the major axis of a plant is known as the root. It lies below the cover of the soil. Root has no nodes and internodes. It includes a root cap at the end. A tuft of root hairs is discovered only beyond the root tip. Roots are positively geotropic in nature. The plant’s root method is categorized into two types.

1. Taproot system

2. Fibrous root system

1. Taproot system It consists of a single root, called a taproot, which grows straight down into the ground. More stunted roots, called lateral roots arise from the taproot.

They are seen in dicotyledonous plants.

Example: Bean, Mango, Neem. 2. Fibrous root method It consists of a cluster of roots arising from the base of the stem. They are thin and uniform in size. It is commonly seen in monocotyledonous plants. Example: Grass, Paddy, Maize.

2. Shoot method Stem The aerial part of the plant body above the ground is known as the shooting method. The main axis of the shooting method is called the stem. The shoot system consists of a stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits. The stem grows above the soil, and it grows toward the sunlight. t has nodes and internodes. Nodes are the parts, where the leaf arises.

The part of the stem between two consecutive nodes is called an anode. The bud at the tip of the stem is known as the apical or terminal bud, and the buds at the axils of the leaves are called auxiliary buds.

Functions of the stem,

  • supports the branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Transports dampness and minerals from roots to upper aerial plant parts.
  • transports the prepared food from leaves to other parts through the stem.
  • stores food as in the case of sugarcane. The leaf’s structure is a green, flat expanded structure borne on the stem at the node. 

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