For this TNPSC examination, the question book bank is taken from the previous year’s question papers from the year 2013 to 2019. the questions which we are given you by SURESH IAS ACADEMY. these questions are free of cost. these questions are only botany questions, for this TNPSC examination.

Make use of these notes in a useful method so that you can successfully clear the exam. Day by day if you practice these questions it is more than enough for you to clear the exam. Have patience and work hard. The candidate should obey the entire book bank question throughout. these questions are the best reference for this TNPSC examination.

 I would recommend you learn these questions and answers that are provided by SURESH IAS ACADEMY. these questions and answers were stuck in a single PDF. In this post, we have conveyed botany questions and answer for the year 2013 to 2019 . Make use of it. if you feel these questions and answers were useful for you to convey with your friends and family circles. so that your friends may also feel somewhat easy to clear the examination. so focus on these questions for your comfortable reference.


  • Asexual and Sexual Reproduction in Plants

Th e-learner will be able to Recall various types of reproduction in lower and higher organisms. Discuss various methods of vegetative reproduction in plants. Recognize modern methods of reproduction. Recall the parts of a flower. Recognize the structure of mature anther. Describe the structure and types of ovules. Discuss the structure of the embryo sac. Recognize different types of pollination. Identify the types of endosperms. Diff eventuate the format of Dicot and Monocot seeds.

One of the essential elements of all living things on earth is reproduction.   Plant reproduction is important not only for its own survival but also for the continuation and existence of all other organisms since the latter directly or indirectly depend on plants. 

Reproduction also plays an important role in evolution. 

  •  1682 – Nehemiah Grew mentioned stamens as the male organ of power. 
  • 1824 – G.B.Amici discovered the pollen tube. 
  • 1848 – Hofmeister described the form of pollen tetrad
  • 1878 – E.Strasburger reported polyembryony 
  • 1884 – E.Strasburger discovered the process of Syngamy.
  •  1898 – S.G.Nawaschin and L. Guignard independently discovered Double fertilization 
  • 1904 – E.Hanning initiated embryo culture. 
  • 1950 – D.A. Johansen proposed classification for embryo development
  • 1964 – S.Guha and S.C.Maheswari raised
  • haploids from Datura pollen grains
  • 1991 – E.S.Coen and E. M. Meyerowitz
  • proposed the ABC model to describe the
  • genetics of initiation and development
  • of floral parts
  • 2015 – K.V.Krishnamurthy summarized the
  • molecular aspects of pre and post
  • fertilization reproductive development
  • in flowering plants

Basically, reproduction occurs in
organisms fall under two major categories

  • Asexual reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction.

1.1 Asexual Reproduction The reproduction method which helps to perpetuate its own species without the involvement of gametes is referred to as asexual reproduction. From Unit I of Class XI we know that reproduction is one of the attributes of living things and the different types of reproduction have also been discussed. Lower plants, fungi, and animals show various methods of asexual reproduction. Some of the methods include the formation of Conidia (Aspergillus and Penicillium); Budding (Yeast and Hydra); Fragmentation (Spirogyra); production of Gemma (Marchantia); Regeneration (Planaria) and Binary fission (Bacteria) (Refer to chapter 1 of Unit I of class XI). The individuals constructed by this process are morphologically and genetically identical and are called clones. Higher plants also reproduce asexually by various methods which are given below:

1.2 Vegetative reproduction 

1.2.1 Natural manners Natural vegetative reproduction is a form of asexual reproduction in which a bud develops and develops into a new plant. The buds may be formed in organs such as roots, stems, and leaves. At some stage, the new plant gets detached from the parent plant and starts to grow into a new plant.  The unit of the reproductive system used in propagation is called reproductive propagules or diaspores. Some of the organs that assist in vegetative reproduction are shown in Figure.

 Examples are Murraya, Dalbergia, and Millington. Some tuberous adventitious roots separated from growing buds also store food. Example Ipomoea matatus and Dahlia. Roots including buds become detached from the parent plant and grow into separate plants under suitable conditions.


Leave a Reply